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Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale
The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is a 20-item instrument that was developed by the National Institute of Mental Health to detect major or clinical depression in adolescents and adults.
The CES-D has 4 separate factors:
- Depressive affect
- Somatic symptoms
- Positive affect
- Interpersonal relations
The questions are easy to answer and cover most of the areas included in the diagnostic criteria for depression. It has been used in urban and rural populations, and in cross-cultural studies of depression. Studies using the CES-D indicate that it has very good internal consistency, acceptable test-retest stability, and construct validity.
The CES-D takes approximately 10 minutes to administer during a client interview or via self-report and is effectively used in a variety of mental health areas including primary care, psychiatric, and related clinical and forensic settings.
Notes: by Radloff, LS, National Institute of Mental Health